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Bitcoin Halving 2024:

Examining Myths of the Upcoming Halving

Bitcoin is a digital currency and global payment network that operates on a decentralized public ledger called the blockchain. Every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every four years, an event known as the halving occurs where the block reward provided to miners for validating transactions is reduced by half. On ~19th April, 2024, the fourth halving will take place, lowering the block reward from its current 6.25 new bitcoins to 3.125.

This reduction comes from Bitcoin's coded supply schedule where the block reward is cut in half by shifting the block count's binary digits to the right. At genesis, miners received 50 new bitcoins per block. Through binary division, the reward decreased to 25 in 2012, then 12.5 in 2016, and most recently to the current amount of 6.25. In five days, another shift will reduce it again.

With each halving, speculation abounds on its impact. Some predict a "death spiral" where reduced rewards cause miners to shut off as their operation is no longer profitable, crippling the network until difficulty adjusts. Others argue price will double to rebalance supply and demand. By examining differences from prior halving's and analysing mining incentives, this essay aims to add perspective on the upcoming event and separate myths from realistic expectations.

Who wouldn't want half a bitcoin?

How it's Different This Time

With the fourth Bitcoin halving on the horizon, analysts have good reason to believe this event may unfold unlike previous ones. Some key differences stand out when examining the current climate.

Firstly, the network hash rate has grown exponentially, recently reaching new all-time highs above 500.0M Terahashes per second. This reflects massive growth in mining infrastructure and underscores Bitcoin's resilience, even with reward reductions looming. Where past halving's saw the network hash rate decline initially, it may prove steadier now due to industry maturation.

Institutional involvement has also increased dramatically. Major firms like MicroStrategy and Tesla now hold substantial bitcoin reserves. While retail traders still drive short-term price action, institutional perspectives may dampen volatility. With the recent approval and record breaking popularity of the Bitcoin ETF, endowments and pensions are now allocating to digital assets which signals growing acceptance of bitcoin as a long-term store of value.

Greater adoption overall implies the market is less dependent solely on supply changes. Bitcoin's user base, infrastructure and real-world utility have all expanded considerably. More avenues now exist to earn, borrow against and spend bitcoin. As such, its price may correlate less with block rewards and more with usage over the long run.

Macroeconomic conditions like high inflation could also influence investor behaviour. Many see bitcoin as a hedge, which may underpin resilience. However, recession risks may curb risk appetite. Geopolitical tensions and currency fluctuations introduce further uncertainties. My personal opinion is that Bitcoin and crypto more broadly still hasn't been put through a true existential crisis like the one the financial sector experienced in 2008. I don't think it's unreasonable to assume that something big is coming and the true test might be imminent. I hope you are properly allocated, anon.

By most metrics, Bitcoin is in unprecedented territory heading into its next halving. Only time will tell if increased maturity translates to a calmer response than past events. Regardless, its future appears bright amid growing global adoption.

Bitcoin is going on an adventure.

Myths Debunked

One common myth surrounding halving's is the "death spiral" scenario. This predicts reduced rewards will cause mass miner capitulation, slashing hash rate until the network grinds to a halt. However, miners experience diverse circumstances, from electricity costs to equipment efficiency. Not all become unprofitable simultaneously. As long as blocks continue confirming, the self-adjusting difficulty rate ensures profitability returns within weeks for those who remain in the game.

Another claim is price will instantly double to rebalance supply and demand. Yet bitcoin markets rarely react so predictably. Demand exists across usage, not just investment. And supply changes gradually and predictably through continuous mining. Past price surges came with delays as markets incorporated new information. Fundamentals like adoption rates and infrastructure growth better explain Bitcoins long-term price trends.

More rational analysis examines miner incentives and the resilience that funding provides. As an operating business, large-scale miners will only shut down as an absolute last resort. Most will first seek short-term efficiencies like under-clocking or fuel-switching. Those with strong balance sheets can weather short dips. New, more efficient mining rigs also come online between halving's.

By building on real usage growth rather than speculative scenarios, bitcoin can emerge from this transition stronger. Its decentralized network effects and improved infrastructure suggest the upcoming halving may pass less dramatically than some predict and simply marks another step in its ongoing evolution.

Bitcoin Death Spiral is a great name for a band.

Bitcoin Bugs

Bitcoin's decentralized network relies on code governing key functions like difficulty adjustment. Yet even protocols as carefully crafted as Satoshi Nakamoto's original bitcoin whitepaper contain quirks, such as an "off-by-one" error in the difficulty calculation.

Specifically, the algorithm bases readjustment on the timestamps of the past 2015 blocks, rather than 2016 blocks. This subtle discrepancy causes difficulty to increase marginally faster than intended with each cycle. While only a tiny effect, it demonstrates how even minute bugs can emerge over many iterations in complex programs.

A similarly small but intriguing anomaly exists in bitcoin's block reward reduction schedule. After 64 halving's reducing rewards by half, the last reward of a single satoshi which is an atomic unit ie. cannot be divided, would normally wrap around in binary. Satoshi pre-emptively patched this to smoothly continue halving down to zero, avoiding a highly inflationary bug.

Such nuanced improvements show how even an initially near-perfect system benefits from ongoing review. As bitcoin evolves, developers will likely identify and address other subtle quirks before they impact the user experience. An open, community-driven approach to better understanding edge cases builds resilience over the long term.

In summary, bitcoin's transparent, self-correcting nature means even minor bugs will get fixed. Ongoing protocol examination and refinement helps keep this digital money as sound as when first envisioned.

Damn bugs!

Technical Progress

Since its inception, bitcoin developers have worked tirelessly to strengthen the network through technical upgrades. From security to scalability and beyond, each new improvement builds on Satoshi's original vision.

Scaling remains an active area of progress. The Lightning Network now routes millions of transactions per month off-chain, with capacity and user-friendliness increasing. Other promising solutions like sidechains and payment channels also help expand throughput. Meanwhile, Schnorr and Taproot activations enhance fungibility and privacy on the base layer.

Underlying infrastructure progresses too. Mining decentralization continues as new regions join and compete for mining rewards. Node count and diversity grow healthily. Open-source libraries make participation easier across platforms and programming languages. Advances in renewable energy also help mining transition to more sustainable practices.

Perhaps most exciting are expanding use cases. Smart contracts on Bitcoin may enable novel applications from decentralized finance to non-fungible tokens giving bitcoin the ability to compete with Ethereum. Censorship-resistant data storage creates new opportunities. And bitcoin's bearer instrument model ensures its money remains independent from any third party.

Overall, bitcoin development thrives through respectful collaboration. By addressing challenges transparently and iteratively, the protocol evolves resiliently while respecting its founding principles. Its continued technical progress and expanding applications suggest bitcoin has only begun realizing its potential as sound, global digital money for all.

Bitcoin miners are evolving.


In closing, this essay has examined the upcoming Bitcoin halving from several angles. We have analysed the record hash rate and institutional involvement indicating a more mature ecosystem than past events. We addressed common myths around miner behaviour and price dynamics that do not reflect economic realities.

Technical aspects were also explored. The longstanding difficulty adjustment anomaly and wrapped binary digits bug showcase how even carefully designed protocols require ongoing review. Meanwhile, improvements in areas like scalability, privacy and security demonstrate the resilient, collaborative nature of open-source development applied to an ever-evolving technology.

In summary, by most metrics this halving enters uncharted territory. Increased adoption, infrastructure and diverse circumstances for miners suggest responses may differ from the past. Regardless, over 15 years on bitcoin has proven resilient to adversity through transparent, community-driven progress. Its innovations in censorship-resistant, digital money and distributed networks have only begun realizing their potential to empower individuals on a global scale.

If you have read this far, I thank you. Please help to further the conversation by sharing this analysis and following for continued discussions on the cutting edge of finance.

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