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Blockchain 101 #7: Cracking the Code: Your Comprehensive Guide to Cryptocurrency

A comprehensive guide to cryptocurrencies, covering their history, use cases, and how they work.

In a world where technological advancements are reshaping the way we live, work, and transact, cryptocurrencies have emerged as a disruptive force that promises to revolutionise the very concept of money.

With their decentralised nature and cryptographic security, cryptocurrencies have piqued the interest of investors, innovators, and the general public alike. In this article, we embark on a journey to demystify this intriguing and transformative financial phenomenon.

Cryptocurrency is not a recent invention. Its roots can be traced back to the 1980s when computer scientists and cryptographers began exploring the concept of creating a digital currency. However, it wasn't until the release of Bitcoin in 2009 by the pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto that the world was introduced to the first practical implementation of cryptocurrency. Bitcoin's whitepaper, titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System," laid the foundation for what would become a global financial revolution.

What Are Cryptocurrencies?

At their core, cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual currencies that utilise cryptography for security. Unlike traditional fiat currencies issued and regulated by governments, cryptocurrencies are decentralised and operate on blockchain technology. This distributed ledger system records all transactions across a network of computers, making it transparent and tamper-proof.

Bitcoin, often referred to as 'digital gold,' stands out as the most well-known and valuable cryptocurrency. Serving both as a digital store of value and a medium of exchange, Bitcoin's limited supply of 21 million coins and its decentralised nature position it as a hedge against inflation and economic uncertainty.

Moving beyond Bitcoin, Ethereum, launched in 2015 by Vitalik Buterin, has pioneered the concept of smart contracts. These self-executing contracts enable the creation of decentralised applications (DApps) on the Ethereum blockchain. Ether (ETH), Ethereum's native cryptocurrency, functions not only as a digital currency but also as fuel for running smart contracts.

Apart from the two most popular cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin and Ethereum, the cryptocurrency market is characterised by its vast array of thousands of distinct cryptocurrencies, contributing to a seemingly expansive landscape. Despite this diversity, these cryptocurrencies can be effectively categorised into the following groups:

Beyond Bitcoin and Ethereum, there are thousands of altcoins, each with its unique features and use cases. Some focus on censorship resistance, like Solana (SOL), while others aim to create stablecoins pegged to real-world assets, like Tether (USDT) or stable value, like DAI.

Utility tokens, like Binance Coin (BNB) or Chainlink (LINK), are designed to facilitate specific functions within a blockchain ecosystem. They can be used for transaction fees, governance, or accessing services within a platform. These tokens play a crucial role in powering and sustaining the functionality of blockchain networks, adding another layer of diversity to the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

As we delve into the mechanics behind the functioning of cryptocurrencies, it becomes crucial to understand how individuals can actively engage with this transformative technology.

At the core of cryptocurrency functionality is Blockchain Technology, serving as the decentralised ledger that meticulously records all transactions. This intricate system is comprised of blocks linked in chronological order. Miners play a pivotal role in this process, validating and adding new blocks to ensure the security and immutability of the ledger.

To actively participate in the world of cryptocurrencies, users must equip themselves with a digital wallet. These wallets, available in various forms such as hardware, software, and paper, serve as secure repositories for private keys. These keys enable access to cryptocurrency holdings and facilitate seamless transactions.

Cryptocurrency networks, including stalwarts like Bitcoin and Ethereum, rely on miners to validate transactions and safeguard the integrity of the blockchain. The mining process involves miners solving complex mathematical puzzles to add new blocks to the chain. In recognition of their efforts, miners are rewarded with cryptocurrency. This intricate mining process is not only integral to the security and stability of the entire network but also forms a key aspect of the broader cryptocurrency infrastructure.

In essence, the interplay of Blockchain Technology, Digital Wallets, and the crucial role of Miners forms the foundation of how individuals interact with and contribute to the evolving landscape of cryptocurrencies.

As we journey deeper into the multifaceted realm of cryptocurrencies, it becomes evident that their impact extends far beyond the foundational technologies and mechanics. The transformative power of cryptocurrencies has manifested in various applications across diverse domains in the global landscape, ushering in a new era in the digital economy.

  1. Investment and Speculation

Cryptocurrencies, with their unique features and potential for high returns, have captivated the interest of individuals and institutions alike. This allure has led to a surge in speculation, contributing to heightened market volatility.

  1. Remittances and Cross-Border Transactions

Providing a swifter and cost-effective alternative to traditional cross-border payment methods, cryptocurrencies have streamlined international money transfers, eliminating the need for intermediaries. This transformative capability empowers individuals with greater financial accessibility and efficiency in cross-border transactions.

  1. Decentralised Finance (DeFi)

At the forefront of financial innovation, Decentralised Finance (DeFi) platforms are reshaping traditional services. Users can now borrow, lend, trade, and earn interest on their cryptocurrencies without relying on conventional banks or financial intermediaries. DeFi exemplifies the potential for financial inclusivity and autonomy in the digital age.

  1. Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs): The Digital Collectibles

The rise of Non-Fungible tokens (NFTs) signifies a paradigm shift in the ownership and value of digital assets. Operating as unique digital assets, NFTs confer ownership and authenticity, transforming digital art, collectables, and virtual real estate into tradable commodities. This innovation not only opens new avenues for artists and creators but also revolutionises the way we perceive and engage with digital content.

However, as we marvel at the transformative potential of cryptocurrencies and NFTs, it's crucial to acknowledge the challenges and risks that accompany their ascent.

Regulatory Uncertainty

Cryptocurrencies exist within a legal grey area in many countries, presenting significant regulatory challenges. Governments worldwide are actively developing frameworks to regulate this burgeoning industry, seeking to strike a balance between fostering innovation and ensuring consumer protection.

Security Concerns

The decentralised and irreversible nature of cryptocurrency transactions makes them alluring targets for hackers and scammers. Users navigating this digital landscape must exercise heightened caution and implement robust security measures to safeguard their assets.


Cryptocurrency prices are renowned for their dramatic fluctuations within short time frames. Investors entering this dynamic market must be well-prepared for the potential loss of value and navigate the volatility with informed decision-making strategies.

The Future of Cryptocurrency

The journey of cryptocurrency is far from over. As blockchain technology continues to mature and innovate, cryptocurrencies are likely to play an increasingly prominent role in our global economy. Whether they become the new standard for financial transactions or coexist alongside traditional currencies, one thing is certain: cryptocurrencies are here to stay.

However, please NOTE that this complex and evolving landscape offers both opportunities and pitfalls. As you navigate further into this realm, it's paramount to stay informed, exercise caution, and explore the possibilities that this revolutionary financial technology has to offer.

The code has indeed been cracked, and the future of finance is being reshaped before our eyes. However, amid the excitement and potential, it is crucial to remind ourselves of the inherent risks. The crypto world is dynamic and, at times, unpredictable. Remember to approach it with a vigilant mindset, ensuring that each step taken is well-informed and aligned with your risk tolerance. The future of cryptocurrency is promising, but exercising caution is the key to navigating this transformative landscape successfully.

We, from Blockchain at NTU, thank you for being part of this enlightening journey and extend a warm welcome to the enthralling universe of blockchain!

NOTE: Articles written by Blockchain at NTU ARE NOT FINANCIAL ADVICE!

Written By:
Dann Wee
Research Director of Blockchain at NTU Club AY23/24

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